Natural appearances are obtained by hair transplantation procedure by today’s technology. Different psychological cases and avoiding social life that may appear on individuals by hair loss are resolved via hair transplantation.
Hair loss is known as “alopecia” in medical literature. Each person has hair loss under normal circumstances; although loss of 50 to 100 hair strands is accepted normal, a hair loss on this level is not natural for a man. Hair loss on this rate and more appear due to some factors.
In hair loss type defined as androgenetic hair loss, hair loss on the individual is caused by genetic codes. The individual may have taken these codes from his parents recessively or dominantly. To detect whether hair loss is genetic, it may be detected easily from the blondness ratio in family elders. However, combination of this gene recessively from parents may result with appearance of baldness although no baldness case exist in the family.
Codes that may cause baldness are carried on x gene, therefore such code may come from mother or father. Although the common belief in the society is that baldness gene is transferred from the mother, medical literature contradicts this. Codes carried on X gene may be both on mother and father and this may be transferred to the children without differentiating boy or girl.
Androgen hormones which have many effect on vital events are quite effective on hair loss or the opposite. Although the explanation is not so simple, a problem on secretion of androgen hormones will cause hair loss and then baldness.
Testosterone and dihydrotestosteron, a testosterone hormone derivate are dominant hormones for hair loss. These hormones are effective on hair roots and 5-alpha reductase enzyme is considered to have a key role on hair roots. In other words, deficiency of these enzymes and hormones will cause problems on hair roots.
Beyond genetic and hormonal factors, many factors play role on hair loss.
Effects of hormone on hair loss
Biochemical substances produced by inner secretion glands of our body are called hormones. Hormones travel all over the body via blood circulation. Very less amounts of these hormones are very effective and testosterone is the most effective hormone. These masculine hormones provide voice change, moustache and beard growth, muscle development and development of human body. These hormones cause acne and beard growth during adolescent period and also hair loss.
In fact, the actual hormone affecting androgenetic (hereditary) hair loss directly is dihydrotestosterone (DHT) rather than testosterone. DHT is derivated from testosterone via 5-alpha reductase enzyme. DHT holds onto the specific receiver area on cells on hair follicles and cause significant changes associated with baldness. 5-alpha reductase function in male is more in the hair loss area. This case explains the cause for genetic hair loss of which men experience. Finasteride effects by blocking this enzyme. DHT also reduces length of anagene (growth) cycle and increases telogene (resting) stage, thus, hairs gradually decrease on each cycle.
Interestingly, testosterone affects hairs on the armpits and genital area while DHT is responsible from formation of beard, arm, leg and body hair, hereditary hair loss and ear and nose hair seen in elder people. Androgen is responsible from hair loss, not from growth.
HAIR LOSS TYPES
Hair loss in men;
Male type hair loss is called as androgenetic alopecia. The cause for that is that dihydrotestosterone affects the hair follicles on the scalp. Hair follicles on front, top and sides of the scalp are affected by DHT hormone; contrary to this, hairs above two ears and nape area are not effected by this hormone and no hair loss occurs on these areas. Hairs which are removed from this area and transplanted are not lost for lifetime.
Genetically, x chromosomes from mother are more effective on hair loss. Although this does not show us that hair loss is completely dependent to mother side, it results that it is more effective. Testosterone hormone is converted into DHT via 5-alpha reductase enzyme. DHT causes miniaturization and creates thin, short and fragile hairs. By continuous effect on hair roots, it causes irreversible hair loss.
Hair follicles should be removed from the areas without hair loss characteristics while performing the hair transplantation procedure. Hairs on these areas never lose. All hair exist during the hair loss. However, because hairs grown instead are thinner and weaker, baldness appear during the process. Androgenetic, namely male type hair loss appear by three factors: these are; Genes, Hormones and Age. Effect of genes on Hair Loss If no baldness characteristics exist on chromosomes coming from parents, baldness does not appear. Genes may be defined as hereditary information pieces on chromosomes. Each person has 46(23 pairs) including 23 from mother and 23 from mother. Genes causing baldness in men are more than one; if multiple genes come together and create a characteristics, these are called polygenic.
One pair from x and y chromosomes transferred from parents determine the gender. Remaining 22 pairs are called autosomal genes. It is believed that autosomal genes cause baldness. Maternal genes are dominant on baldness, both the cause for that could not be detected yet.
Having hair loss genes does not mean that baldness will appear exactly. Gene expression is dependent to some factors; the most important factors are hormones and age.
Cicatricial alopecia: Cicatricial alopecia is caused by permanent destroy and fibrosis (wound tissue formation) of hair follicles. While it appears circularly, it may be seen diffuse homogenously. Contrary to common belief, hair transplantation is the definite solution for this type of loss; first discovery of hair transplantation goes before 1940s by follicle transplantation for burn and wound scars.
Trauma-induced hair loss: This type of hair loss is not related with any disease. To pull the hair, to expose to extreme heat, curling the hair with hot curling iron or brush, applying strong chemicals onto the hair (hair dyes, sprays i.e.) are possible causes.
As a disease symptom: Hair loss may be a symptom for some diseases. Some of these include lupus erythematosus, syphilis, thyroid disease (hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism), hormone imbalance, sarcoidosis, skin invasion of cancer, severe nutritional disorders (protein, iron, zinc or biotin deficiencies). This kind of nutritional deficiencies are especially common in ladies who apply diets to loose weight or have severe menstrual bleeding.
Infection- and infestation-induced hair loss: The hair loss here is dependent to direct or indirect destroy of hair body by different microorganisms (fungi, bacteria or viruses) or pediculus.
Alopecia arata is also known as pelade and seen in young and middle aged adults on both genders. Majority of the cases heal simultaneously; it is temporary and does not require any specific treatment. Although the exact cause for that disease is not known, an autoimmune process which affects the hair only is held responsible from this hair loss type. Patients generally have a hair loss of which the size is like a coin with a diameter of 2.5 cm on one or more circular area.
Even though these are not as efficient as hormonal and genetic factors, it is among causes for hair loss.
The correct person to determine your hair loss type is your physician. According to this diagnosis, treatment for hair loss will change. Your physician will detect your hair loss type and in addition to the physical examination, she/he will search the medications you use, your previous diseases, whether your family members have hair loss, nutritional habits abd hair care habits.